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Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Jun;35(6):588-91. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e3181666ac8.

Antimicrobial susceptibility profile of resistance phenotypes of Neisseria gonorrheae in India.

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Regional STD Teaching Training and Research Centre, Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjang Hospital, New Delhi, India.



Regular monitoring of antimicrobial resistance of Neisseria gonorrheae needs to be established in the country. The aim of the study was to determine the trend of resistance phenotypes of N. gonorrheae in India, and to assess the susceptibility profile of resistance phenotypes.


Antimicrobial susceptibilities of N. gonorrheae isolates to penicillin, tetracycline, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and spectinomycin were determined by in terms of minimum inhibitory concentrations using Etest. World Health Organization reference strains were used as control strains. Phenotypic characterization of N. gonorrheae isolates was carried out on the basis of plasmid and chromosomally mediated resistance to penicillin and tetracycline.


Of 382 isolates, 172 (45.0%) belonged to 6 resistance phenotype i.e., penicillinase-producing N. gonorrheae (PPNG) (16.5%), tetracycline resistant N. gonorrheae (TRNG) (8.9%), PPNG-TRNG (4.7%), chromosomally mediated tetracycline resistant N. gonorrheae (11.2%), and chromosomally mediated penicillin resistant N. gonorrheae (3.7%). Chromosomally mediated penicillin and tetracycline resistant N. gonorrheae isolates were not detected. Chromosomally mediated penicillin resistant N. gonorrheae and chromosomally mediated tetracycline resistant N. gonorrheae decreased from 2002 to 2006 whereas TRNG strains increased during the study period. Ciprofloxacin resistant and ceftriaxone less sensitive strains were more frequent among the resistance phenotypes.


The high rates of plasmid and chromosomally mediated resistance to penicillin, tetracycline along with high rates of resistance to ciprofloxacin among all the resistance phenotypes underlines the necessity for continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance to help in controlling the spread of gonorrhoea.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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