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J Neurosci. 2008 Apr 16;28(16):4172-82. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5471-07.2008.

Ischemic preconditioning targets the respiration of synaptic mitochondria via protein kinase C epsilon.

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  • 1The Cerebral Vascular Disease Research Center, and The John T. MacDonald Center for Medical Genetics, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida 33136, USA.

Abstract

In the brain, ischemic preconditioning (IPC) diminishes mitochondrial dysfunction after ischemia and confers neuroprotection. Activation of epsilon protein kinase C (epsilonPKC) has been proposed to be a key neuroprotective pathway during IPC. We tested the hypothesis that IPC increases the levels of epsilonPKC in synaptosomes from rat hippocampus, resulting in improved synaptic mitochondrial respiration. Preconditioning significantly increased the level of hippocampal synaptosomal epsilonPKC to 152% of sham-operated animals at 2 d of reperfusion, the time of peak neuroprotection. We tested the effect of epsilonPKC activation on hippocampal synaptic mitochondrial respiration 2 d after preconditioning. Treatment with the specific epsilonPKC activating peptide, tat-psiepsilonRACK (tat-psiepsilon-receptor for activated C kinase), increased the rate of oxygen consumption in the presence of substrates for complexes I, II, and IV to 157, 153, and 131% of control (tat peptide alone). In parallel, we found that epsilonPKC activation in synaptosomes from preconditioned animals resulted in altered levels of phosphorylated mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins: increased serine and tyrosine phosphorylation of 18 kDa subunit of complex I, decreased serine phosphorylation of FeS protein in complex III, increased threonine phosphorylation of COX IV (cytochrome oxidase IV), increased mitochondrial membrane potential, and decreased H2O2 production. In brief, ischemic preconditioning promoted significant increases in the level of synaptosomal epsilonPKC. Activation of epsilonPKC increased synaptosomal mitochondrial respiration and phosphorylation of mitochondrial respiratory chain proteins. We propose that, at 48 h of reperfusion after ischemic preconditioning, epsilonPKC is poised at synaptic mitochondria to respond to ischemia either by direct phosphorylation or activation of the epsilonPKC signaling pathway.

PMID:
18417696
PMCID:
PMC2678917
DOI:
10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5471-07.2008
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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