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Am J Emerg Med. 2008 May;26(4):497-503. doi: 10.1016/j.ajem.2007.08.004.

The pediatric electrocardiogram part III: Congenital heart disease and other cardiac syndromes.

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Department of Pediatrics, Childrens' Medical Center, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USA.


Approximately 1% of newborns are affected by congenital heart disease (CHD), and although many lesions of CHD have trivial hemodynamic and clinical implications, some clinically significant lesions are asymptomatic in the immediate newborn period and may present after discharge from the well baby nursery. Because of this, CHD should be considered in the differential diagnosis of any ill-appearing newborn, regardless of the presence of cyanosis. In addition, the number of children, adolescents, and adults with surgically repaired or palliated CHD continues to grow within the United States and other developed countries. It is in this population that arrhythmias are particularly prone to develop, and knowledge of the common arrhythmias associated with CHD is mandatory for the acute care provider.

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