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J Clin Periodontol. 2008 Jul;35(7):561-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01233.x. Epub 2008 Apr 10.

Vitamin D receptor polymorphism (-1056 Taq-I) interacts with smoking for the presence and progression of periodontitis.

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Department of Periodontology, Eastman Dental Institute and Hospital, University College London (UCL), London, UK.



The aim of this analysis was to investigate the relationship between a vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism and the diagnosis and progression of periodontitis.


Data were derived from two different studies, including 231 subjects with healthy periodontium, 224 aggressive periodontitis and 79 chronic periodontitis (CP) patients in a case-control investigation. Sixty-one of these CP patients also took part in an observational study with a 1-year follow-up, in which progression of periodontitis was determined at the subject level. All 534 subjects provided a blood sample from which genomic DNA was extracted to study VDR -1056 TaqI polymorphism.


The interaction between smoking and VDR polymorphism was associated with the diagnosis of periodontitis in Caucasians [p=0.001, odds ratio (OR)=1.33, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=1.12-1.57] and all subjects (p=0.033, OR=1.60, 95% CI=1.04-2.48). In the longitudinal study, subjects were divided into two clusters at 1 year according to the median number of progressing sites (Delta cumulative attachment loss >2 mm). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the interaction between VDR Taq-I polymorphism and smoking showed limited evidence of association with the "severe progression" cluster (p=0.033, OR=15.24, 95% CI=1.24-187.42).


Vitamin D receptor Taq-I TT polymorphism was moderately associated with both the presence and the progression of periodontitis in smokers, while no association was detected in non-smoking individuals. VDR genetic factors may interact with smoking in the pathogenesis of periodontitis.

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