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Oncology. 2007;73(3-4):154-61. doi: 10.1159/000126498. Epub 2008 Apr 11.

Determinants of compliance in a cluster randomised controlled trial on screening of breast and cervix cancer in mumbai, India. 2. Compliance to referral and treatment.

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Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India.



The study aims to investigate the efficacy of screening by low-cost technology in down-staging and reduction of mortality due to breast and cervix cancer.


The present trial is a community-based, cluster randomised controlled cohort study on screening for breast and cervix cancers (clinical breast examination and visual inspection of the cervix after application of 4% acetic acid). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses are conducted to identify the predictors of compliance to referral among screen-positive women and to treatment among cancer cases.


The compliance to diagnostic investigations is 73% among screen-positive women referred for breast cancer and 79% among women referred for cervix cancer. Younger women, women working in service or being self-employed, school level-educated women, mother tongue Marathi, participation in screening in all 3 rounds and women referred as screen positive for cervix cancer had higher compliance to diagnostic investigations. The compliance to treatment completion is higher in women diagnosed with breast cancer, at 95%, compared to 86% for cervix cancers and 81% for cervix pre-cancers.


Good compliance rates along with a proper system of referral, further investigations, confirmation of diagnosis and treatment as demonstrated in this trial are crucial for successful screening programmes.

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