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Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2008 Nov;68(2):131-56. doi: 10.1016/j.critrevonc.2008.02.012. Epub 2008 Apr 11.

Review of squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

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Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.


Vulvar squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) develops following two different pathways, which have their own premalignant lesions. In the absence of human papilloma virus (HPV), vulvar SCC can develop in a background of lichen sclerosus (LS), differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN) or both. The other pathway leading to vulvar SCC is associated with HPV and the HPV-associated premalignancy is usual VIN. In this review we will discuss the history, epidemiology, aetiology, histology, clinical characteristics, treatment options, malignant potential and prevention strategies of the three squamous premalignant vulvar lesions.

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