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Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract. 2008 May;11(2):229-59, vi. doi: 10.1016/j.cvex.2008.01.006.

Pet bird toxicity and related environmental concerns.

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Department of Avian and Exotic Medicine, Florida Veterinary Specialists, Tampa, FL 33614, USA.


Birds may be exposed to toxins through various sources in their everyday environment. Toxicity may occur through inhalation or oral or dermal exposures. Clinicians diagnose and treat these toxicities in an effort to correct the disease of the individual patient. Recognition of toxicity in the avian patient has further significance as it relates to the patient's environment, including the health of other animals, humans, and the ecosystem. While some toxicities, such as lead and zinc toxicosis, are well-documented in avian species, others are limited to anecdotal reports and extrapolation from other species. Continued research is needed in this area of avian medicine to expand our knowledge and improve our ability to diagnose and treat toxic conditions in birds.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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