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Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2008 Jun;80(3):365-70. doi: 10.1016/j.diabres.2007.12.009. Epub 2008 Apr 10.

In vivo and in vitro studies of GAD-antibody positive subjects with Type 2 diabetes: A distinct sub-phenotype.

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Metabolic Research Unit, Department of Endocrinology, St. James's Hospital, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 8, Ireland.


The purpose of this study was to determine if immune mechanisms in GAD positive patients' contribute to the pathogenesis of a specific sub-type of Type 2 diabetes. GAD positive (n=8) and GAD negative (n=8) subjects diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were matched for age, gender, body mass index, duration of diabetes and glycaemic control. All subjects underwent an insulin-modified frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to measure insulin sensitivity and insulin secretory function with minimal model analysis. In addition, BRIN-BD11 clonal beta-cells were supplemented with patients' sera to determine basal and alanine-stimulated insulin secretion and terminal complement complex (TCC) formation. Both groups were severely insulin resistant (0.56+/-0.17 vs. 0.99+/-0.3310(-4)min(-1)/(microUml(-1)) for GADneg and GADpos, respectively) but the GAD negative subjects had a higher basal (87+/-11 vs. 58+/-14pmoll(-1), p<0.05) and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (DeltaAUCins 0.96+/-0.12 vs. 0.60+/-0.12pmol/(l(-1)min), p<0.05). In vivo measures of insulin secretion were negatively correlated with TCC formation, independent of antibody status. In conclusion, GAD positive subjects initially diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes are unable to compensate for insulin resistance due to more pronounced beta-cell impairment. TCC formation may be partly responsible for the insulin secretory dysfunction associated with this specific sub-type of Type 2 diabetes.

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