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Pituitary. 2008;11(2):163-9. doi: 10.1007/s11102-008-0109-3.

Female hypogonadism: evaluation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis.

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Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Anschutz Outpatient Pavilion, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.


Female hypogonadism refers to deficient or abnormal function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis that clinically presents with menstrual cycle disturbances. Female hypogonadism can be due to a congenital or acquired cause, and the defect can be at the level of the hypothalamus, pituitary or ovary. A careful history, physical exam and selected laboratory testing can often determine the locus of the defect and whether it results from a structural or hormonal problem. Laboratory testing generally relies on basal hormone levels; however, timing of blood sampling in relation to menses is important to interpretation of the data.

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