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Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2008 May;19(2):247-69, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.pmr.2007.12.002.

Adolescent sports concussion.

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Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.


Approximately 2 million sports and recreation concussive injuries occur per year in the United States, which may be an underestimate because of inconsistent data reporting. The field of concussion management has evolved rapidly over the last 10 years, and with these advances comes new understanding of the significant symptomatic and cognitive impairments of concussion. These sequelae are more fully realized and may last longer than previously thought. Data have emerged regarding pathophysiology of concussion, risk factors, outcome, effects of repetitive injury, subtypes of concussive injury, and treatment protocols. This evidence calls for more conservative management of concussion, particularly in younger athletes, and demonstrates the shortcomings of concussion guidelines.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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