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J Interpers Violence. 2009 Jan;24(1):54-74. doi: 10.1177/0886260508316477. Epub 2008 Apr 7.

Hate crimes and stigma-related experiences among sexual minority adults in the United States: prevalence estimates from a national probability sample.

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  • 1Psychology Department, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.


Using survey responses collected via the Internet from a U.S. national probability sample of gay, lesbian, and bisexual adults (N = 662), this article reports prevalence estimates of criminal victimization and related experiences based on the target's sexual orientation. Approximately 20% of respondents reported having experienced a person or property crime based on their sexual orientation; about half had experienced verbal harassment, and more than 1 in 10 reported having experienced employment or housing discrimination. Gay men were significantly more likely than lesbians or bisexuals to experience violence and property crimes. Employment and housing discrimination were significantly more likely among gay men and lesbians than among bisexual men and women. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

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