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Endocrinology. 2008 Jul;149(7):3427-34. doi: 10.1210/en.2008-0207. Epub 2008 Apr 3.

Identification of key amino acid residues in a thyrotropin receptor monoclonal antibody epitope provides insight into its inverse agonist and antagonist properties.

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Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA.


CS-17 is a murine monoclonal antibody to the human TSH receptor (TSHR) with both inverse agonist and antagonist properties. Thus, in the absence of ligand, CS-17 reduces constitutive TSHR cAMP generation and also competes for TSH binding to the receptor. The present data indicate that for both of these functions, the monovalent CS-17 Fab (50 kDa) behaves identically to the intact, divalent IgG molecule (150 kDa). The surprising observation that CS-17 competes for TSH binding to the human but not porcine TSHR enabled identification of a number of amino acids in its epitope. Replacement of only three human TSHR residues (Y195, Q235, and S243) with the homologous porcine TSHR residues totally abolishes CS-17 binding as detected by flow cytometry. TSH binding is unaffected. Of these residues, Y195 is most important, with Q235 and S243 contributing to CS-17 binding to a much lesser degree. The functional effects of CS-17 IgG and Fab on constitutive cAMP generation by porcinized human TSHR confirm the CS-17 binding data. The location of TSHR amino acid residues Y195, Q235, and S243 deduced from the crystal structure of the FSH receptor leucine-rich domain provides valuable insight into the CS-17 and TSH binding sites. Whereas hormone ligands bind primarily to the concave surface of the leucine-rich domains, a major portion of the CS-17 epitope lies on the opposite convex surface with a minor component in close proximity to known TSH binding residues.

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