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Radiats Biol Radioecol. 2007 Nov-Dec;47(6):727-32.

Problems in assessment of risks from exposures to microwaves of mobile communication.

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Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.


Since pioneering investigations published in the beginning of 1970th, various biological responses to non-thermal (NT) microwaves (MW), including adverse health effects, have been described by many research groups all over the world. There is strong evidence that the NT MW biological effects depend on several physical parameters and biological variables, which must be controlled in replication studies. Apart from the fundamental importance, the development of comprehensive mechanisms for the NT MW effects is socially important. The effects of MW of mobile communications are of major concern because of the increased exposure in many countries. It has been shown that adverse effects of NT MW from GSM/UMTS mobile phones on human lymphocytes from healthy and hypersensitive to EMF persons depend on carrier frequency and modulation. Further investigations with human primary cells, animals and volunteers are needed to elucidate possible adverse effects of MW signals that are used in wireless communication. Identification of those types and frequency channels/bands for mobile communication, which do not affect human cells, is urgently needed as the high priority task for the development of safe mobile communication. Numerous data on the NT MW effects clearly indicate that the SAR-concept alone cannot underlie the safety guidelines for chronic exposures to MW from mobile communication and other approaches are needed. However, there is not enough research information to set exposure MW standards. Various genetic and epigenetic effects of signals used in mobile communication should be studied. It has been shown that NT MW affect cells of various types including stem cells and reproductive organs. Stem cells represent especially important cellular model because recent data suggest that different cancer types, including leukemia, have a fundamentally common basis that is grounded on epigenetic changes in stem cells.

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