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Osteoporos Int. 2008 Sep;19(9):1343-54. doi: 10.1007/s00198-008-0585-3. Epub 2008 Mar 29.

Collagen maturity, glycation induced-pentosidine, and mineralization are increased following 3-year treatment with incadronate in dogs.

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Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan.


Collagen cross-linking is a determinant of bone quality. A three-year treatment of bisphosphonate-incadronate disodium-in beagles increased degree of mineralization, collagen maturity, and pentosidine, a compound with advanced glycation end products. The treatment had no effect on the total amount of enzymatic cross-link formation.


Collagen cross-linking is a determinant of bone quality. Recently, we reported that long-term treatment with bisphosphonate increased microdamage accumulation. The aim of this study was to clarify the effect of a three-year treatment with bisphosphonate on degree of mineralization and immature and mature enzymatic cross-links and non-enzymatic collagen cross-link, pentosidine, in cortical bone in the same dogs.


Twenty-nine 1-year-old beagles (15 males, 14 females) were divided into three groups that daily were given vehicle or incadronate at doses of 0.3 or 0.6 mg/kg/day orally for three years. A cortex of a rib was fractionated into low- and high-density portions. The contents of calcium, phosphorus, enzymatic immature and mature cross-links, and the non-enzymatic glycation product pentosidine were determined in each fraction.


Calcium, phosphorus, and pentosidine contents and the ratio of mature to immature cross-links increased significantly with incadronate in a dose-dependent manner, but the total amount of enzymatic cross-links was unchanged. The pentosidine content correlated inversely with cortical activation frequency (p < 0.01).


Long-term suppression of bone remodeling by bisphosphonate increases degree of mineralization, collagen maturity, and non-enzymatic cross-linking.

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