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PLoS Comput Biol. 2008 Mar 21;4(3):e1000032. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000032.

Plant classification from bat-like echolocation signals.

Author information

1
Animal Physiology, Zoological Institute, University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany.

Abstract

Classification of plants according to their echoes is an elementary component of bat behavior that plays an important role in spatial orientation and food acquisition. Vegetation echoes are, however, highly complex stochastic signals: from an acoustical point of view, a plant can be thought of as a three-dimensional array of leaves reflecting the emitted bat call. The received echo is therefore a superposition of many reflections. In this work we suggest that the classification of these echoes might not be such a troublesome routine for bats as formerly thought. We present a rather simple approach to classifying signals from a large database of plant echoes that were created by ensonifying plants with a frequency-modulated bat-like ultrasonic pulse. Our algorithm uses the spectrogram of a single echo from which it only uses features that are undoubtedly accessible to bats. We used a standard machine learning algorithm (SVM) to automatically extract suitable linear combinations of time and frequency cues from the spectrograms such that classification with high accuracy is enabled. This demonstrates that ultrasonic echoes are highly informative about the species membership of an ensonified plant, and that this information can be extracted with rather simple, biologically plausible analysis. Thus, our findings provide a new explanatory basis for the poorly understood observed abilities of bats in classifying vegetation and other complex objects.

PMID:
18369425
PMCID:
PMC2267002
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pcbi.1000032
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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