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PLoS One. 2008 Mar 26;3(3):e1861. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001861.

Extracellular transglutaminase 2 is catalytically inactive, but is transiently activated upon tissue injury.

Author information

1
Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Abstract

Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a multifunctional mammalian protein with transamidase and signaling properties. Using selective TG2 inhibitors and tagged nucleophilic amine substrates, we show that the majority of extracellular TG2 is inactive under normal physiological conditions in cell culture and in vivo. However, abundant TG2 activity was detected around the wound in a standard cultured fibroblast scratch assay. To demonstrate wounding-induced activation of TG2 in vivo, the toll-like receptor 3 ligand, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), was injected in mice to trigger small intestinal injury. Although no TG2 activity was detected in vehicle-treated mice, acute poly(I:C) injury resulted in rapid TG2 activation in the small intestinal mucosa. Our findings provide a new basis for understanding the role of TG2 in physiology and disease.

PMID:
18365016
PMCID:
PMC2267210
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0001861
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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