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J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2008 Mar-Apr;23(2):74-83. doi: 10.1097/01.HTR.0000314526.01006.c8.

Predictors of psychological symptoms 1 year after traumatic brain injury: a population-based, epidemiological study.

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Mental Health Service, Ralph H. Johnson Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Charleston, SC29401, USA.



To examine self-reported psychological symptoms 1 year after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a population-based sample.


There were 1560 adults who had sustained TBI.


A telephone survey with questions about recent mood and anxiety symptoms, and diagnoses since TBI. Polychotomous logistic regression with 3 response levels (probable, possible, and no mood or anxiety symptoms) identified predictors of psychological symptoms.


Overall, 40% of participants had clinically significant mood or anxiety symptoms-12.6% with probable symptoms and 27.5% with possible symptoms. Main risk factors for probable symptoms included younger age, poor physical functioning, inadequate social support, and being a white woman. Other risk factors included being retired or unemployed, and pre-TBI psychiatric disorder or multiple concussions.


These findings suggest the need for careful screening of persons with TBI who are at particular risk of developing psychological symptoms, and persons who have recently sustained TBI and their families to be educated about the possibility of developing such symptoms.

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