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Rev Esp Cardiol. 2008 Mar;61(3):251-9.

[Validation of the Spanish version of the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire].

[Article in Spanish]

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Instituto Municipal de Investigación Médica-Hospital del Mar, Barcelona, España.



The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) is the most commonly used instrument for evaluating quality of life in patients with heart failure. It comprises 21 items and two dimensions: the physical and the emotional. The aim of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the MLHFQ.


The MLHFQ and the 36-item short form (SF-36) questionnaire were administered one and two months after discharge to 677 patients who had been hospitalized for heart failure. Patients were classified as either stable (n=245) or unstable (n=103) on the basis of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class and three other functional capacity variables. Reliability was evaluated using measures of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) and reproducibility (the intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]). Validity was assessed by looking at the scores by NYHA class, and at correlations between scores on MLHFQ and SF-36 dimensions. Responsiveness to change was evaluated using the effect size.


Cronbach's alpha was > OR =0.8 for the three MLHFQ scores, and the ICC was also large (0.74-0.83). In addition, MLHFQ scores varied significantly with functional class (P< .001), and there were intermediate-to-high correlations with the assumed corresponding SF-36 dimensions (0.74-0.52). The observed effect sizes were small or intermediate (0.09-0.44).


The Spanish version of the MLHFQ demonstrated adequate metric properties, comparable to the original. These results support the use of the MLHFQ in Spanish heart failure patients, although it would be advisable to re-evaluate its responsiveness to change.

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