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J Appl Psychol. 2008 Mar;93(2):346-57. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.93.2.346.

The effects of transformational and change leadership on employees' commitment to a change: a multilevel study.

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College of Management, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0520, USA.


The effects of transformational leadership on the outcomes of specific change initiatives are not well understood. Conversely, organizational change studies have examined leader behaviors during specific change implementations yet have failed to link these to broader leadership theories. In this study, the authors investigate the relationship between transformational and change leadership and followers' commitment to a particular change initiative as a function of the personal impact of the changes. Transformational leadership was found to be more strongly related to followers' change commitment than change-specific leadership practices, especially when the change had significant personal impact. For leaders who were not viewed as transformational, good change-management practices were found to be associated with higher levels of change commitment.

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