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Cell. 2008 Mar 21;132(6):935-44. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2008.01.043.

PILRalpha is a herpes simplex virus-1 entry coreceptor that associates with glycoprotein B.

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Department of Immunochemistry, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


Glycoprotein B (gB) is one of the essential components for infection by herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). Although several cellular receptors that associate with glycoprotein D (gD), such as herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) and Nectin-1, have been identified, specific molecules that mediate HSV-1 infection by associating with gB have not been elucidated. Here, we found that paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor (PILR) alpha associates with gB, and cells transduced with PILRalpha become susceptible to HSV-1 infection. Furthermore, HSV-1 infection of human primary cells expressing both HVEM and PILRalpha was blocked by either anti-PILRalpha or anti-HVEM antibody. Our results demonstrate that cellular receptors for both gB and gD are required for HSV-1 infection and that PILRalpha plays an important role in HSV-1 infection as a coreceptor that associates with gB. These findings uncover a crucial aspect of the mechanism underlying HSV-1 infection.

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