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Virology. 2008 Jun 5;375(2):492-503. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2008.01.040. Epub 2008 Mar 19.

Systemic and mucosal immunological responses during repeated mucosal SHIV(162P3) challenges prior to and following infection in pigtailed macaques.

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Laboratory Branch, Division of HIV and AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.


Local and systemic immunological changes following vaginal HIV-1 exposures are poorly characterized and may influence susceptibility to infection. Therefore, we examined longitudinal mucosal, plasma cytokine profiles and viral-specific T-cell responses (vSTRs) before and during weekly repeated low-dose SHIV(SF162P3) viral challenges in six female pigtailed macaques, even in the absence of overt systemic infection. Following a single viral challenge, induction of several cytokines was detected consistently in cervico-vaginal lavages (CVL). With additional exposure and documented systemic infection, a hallmark of response profile was defined as peak levels in both CVL (MCP-1, MIP-1alpha, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-1RA and IL-8) and plasma cytokines (MCP-1, eotaxin and IL-1RA) in the macaques. In the periphery, vSTRs were observed within the first one or two viral challenges, but prior to the detection of systemic infection in 5/6 exposed pigtailed macaques. These findings provide valuable information regarding mucosal HIV-1 infection that may benefit microbicide research and development.

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