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J Clin Microbiol. 2008 May;46(5):1747-51. doi: 10.1128/JCM.02292-07. Epub 2008 Mar 19.

Simultaneous genotyping of all hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subtypes of avian influenza viruses by use of padlock probes.

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  • 1Joint Research and Development Division, Department of Virology, National Veterinary Institute and Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Ulls väg 2B, SE-751 89 Uppsala, Sweden.


A subtyping assay for both the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) surface antigens of the avian influenza virus (AIV) has been developed. The method uses padlock probe chemistry combined with a microarray output for detection. The outstanding feature of this assay is its capability to designate both the HA and the NA of an AIV sample from a single reaction mixture. A panel of 77 influenza virus strains was tested representing the entire assortment of the two antigens. One hundred percent (77/77) of the samples tested were identified as AIV, and 97% (75/77) were subtyped correctly in accordance with previous examinations performed by classical diagnostic methods. Testing of heterologous pathogens verified the specificity of the assay. This assay is a convenient and practical tool for the study of AIVs, providing important HA and NA data more rapidly than conventional methods.

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