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J Med Microbiol. 2008 Apr;57(Pt 4):463-8. doi: 10.1099/jmm.0.47535-0.

A sustained-release formulation of doxycycline hyclate (Atridox) prevents simultaneous infection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted by tick bite.

Author information

1
Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO 80522, USA. Naz2@cdc.gov

Abstract

Current prophylaxis for infected tick bites consists of personal protective measures directed towards ticks. This study compared the efficacy of a single oral dose of doxycycline with that of a single injection of sustained-release doxycycline in a model of Lyme borreliosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection. Dosages of doxycycline were equilibrated based on previously determined peak plasma levels in mice [oral, 2.4 microg (ml plasma)(-1); sustained release, 1.9 microg (ml plasma)(-1)] determined 8 h after inoculation. In challenge experiments where five Borrelia burgdorferi-infected and five A. phagocytophilum-infected nymphs were used per mouse, only 20 and 30 % of mice were protected from B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum infection, respectively, using oral doxycycline. In contrast, 100 % of mice receiving sustained-release doxycycline were protected from A. phagocytophilum infection, as indicated by real-time PCR of blood samples, quantitative PCR and culture isolation of spleen samples, and protected against B. burgdorferi infection as demonstrated by culture of ear, heart and bladder. Although 15-40 copies of A. phagocytophilum could be amplified from the spleens of mice treated with sustained-release doxycycline, no viable A. phagocytophilum from these spleens could be cultured in HL-60 cells. In contrast, 7/10 mice receiving oral doxycycline were PCR- and culture-positive for A. phagocytophilum, with copy numbers ranging from 800 to 10 000 within the spleen, as determined by quantitative PCR. Other correlates with A. phagocytophilum infection included a significant difference in spleen mass (mean of 110 mg for sustained-release treatment versus a mean of 230 mg for oral treatment) and the number of splenic lymphoid nodules (mean of 8 for sustained-release treatment versus mean of 12.5 for oral doxycycline) as determined by histopathology. These studies indicate that a single injection of a sustained-release formulation antibiotic may offer a viable prophylactic treatment option for multiple infectious agents in patients presenting with tick bites.

PMID:
18349366
DOI:
10.1099/jmm.0.47535-0
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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