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Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2008 May;294(5):H2268-75. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.91494.2007. Epub 2008 Mar 14.

Transcription repression and blocks in cell cycle progression in hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

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The Heart Institute for Children, Hope Children's Hospital, Oak Lawn, IL, USA.


Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is characterized by abnormally developed atrial septum and a severe underdevelopment of the left side of the heart. Despite significant advances in its surgical management, little is known about the molecular abnormalities in this syndrome. To gain molecular insights into HLHS, expression profiling by gene-chip microarray (Affymetrix U133 2.0) and by real-time RT-PCR was performed in the atrial septum of patients diagnosed with HLHS and compared with age-matched non-HLHS patients. Hierarchical clustering of all expressed genes with a P < 0.01 of all tissue samples showed two main clusters, one of HLHS and the other of non-HLHS, suggesting different expression patterns by the two groups. Net affix followed by real-time RT-PCR analysis identified the differentially expressed genes to be those involved in chromatin remodeling, cell cycle regulation, and transcriptional regulation. These included remodeling factors, histone deactylase 2 and SET and MYND domain containing 1; transcription factors, FoxP1, and components of the calcineurin-nuclear factor of activated T cells signaling pathway; and cell cycle regulators, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)-4, phosphatase and tensin homolog, and p18. Since these factors play essential roles in heart growth and development, the abnormal expression pattern suggests that these molecules may contribute to the pathogenesis of HLHS.

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