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Mar Pollut Bull. 2008;57(6-12):735-43. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2008.01.037. Epub 2008 Mar 14.

Potential use of mangroves as constructed wetland for municipal sewage treatment in Futian, Shenzhen, China.

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State Key Laboratory of Biocontrol, School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China.


A pilot-scale mangrove wetland was constructed in Futian, Shenzhen for municipal sewage treatment. Three identical belts (length: 33m, width: 3m, depth: 0.5m) were filled with stone (bottom), gravel and mangrove sand (surface). Seedlings of two native mangrove species (Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum) and one exotic species (Sonneratia caseolaris) were transplanted to the belts with one species for each belt. The hydraulic loading was 5m(3)d(-1) and hydraulic retention time 3d. High levels of removal of COD, BOD(5), TN, TP and NH(3)-N were obtained. The treatment efficiency of S. caseolaris and A. corniculatum was higher than that of K. candel. Faster plant growth was obtained for S. caseolaris. The substrate in the S. caseolaris belt also showed higher enzyme activities including dehydrogenase, cellulase, phosphatase, urease and beta-glucosidase. The removal rates of organic matter and nutrients were positively correlated with plant growth. The results indicated that mangroves could be used in a constructed wetland for municipal sewage treatment, providing post-treatment to remove coliforms was also included.

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