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Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2008 Jun 27;363(1500):2111-22. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2008.2264.

Neural stem cells: involvement in adult neurogenesis and CNS repair.

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Department of Physiology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinanomachi, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.


Recent advances in stem cell research, including the selective expansion of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro, the induction of particular neural cells from embryonic stem cells in vitro, the identification of NSCs or NSC-like cells in the adult brain and the detection of neurogenesis in the adult brain (adult neurogenesis), have laid the groundwork for the development of novel therapies aimed at inducing regeneration in the damaged central nervous system (CNS). There are two major strategies for inducing regeneration in the damaged CNS: (i) activation of the endogenous regenerative capacity and (ii) cell transplantation therapy. In this review, we summarize the recent findings from our group and others on NSCs, with respect to their role in insult-induced neurogenesis (activation of adult NSCs, proliferation of transit-amplifying cells, migration of neuroblasts and survival and maturation of the newborn neurons), and implications for therapeutic interventions, together with tactics for using cell transplantation therapy to treat the damaged CNS.

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