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J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2008 Dec;39(4):587-99. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2008.01.006. Epub 2008 Feb 8.

Implicit and explicit self-schema in active deluded, remitted deluded, and depressed patients.

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School of Psychology, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain.


The main objective of this study was to analyze the hypothesis that patients with persecutory delusions would show a depressive-type self-concept when assessed with implicit measures of self-schema (i.e., a free recall test of self-relevant adjectives) but would show a normal self-concept when assessed with explicit measures (i.e., a self-concept questionnaire and a task requiring endorsement of self-relevant adjectives). The sample consisted of 136 participants (40 acute deluded participants, 25 remitted deluded participants, 35 depressed patients and 36 normal controls). Our results revealed that both groups of deluded participants showed no significant discrepancy between explicit and implicit measures of self-concept. These findings do not support the hypothesis of an implicit negative cognitive schema in persecutory deluded participants.

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