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Andrologia. 2008 Apr;40(2):66-71. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0272.2007.00830.x.

Hidden pathogens uncovered: metagenomic analysis of urinary tract infections.

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Institute of Medical Microbiology, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.


Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common kidney and urologic diseases in industrial nations and are usually caused through faecal contamination of the urinary tract. In this study, we have examined 1449 urine specimens both by culture and by PCR. The majority of UTIs examined were caused by Escherichia coli (35.15%), followed by miscellaneous bacteria (23.03%), and by Enterococcus faecalis (19.39%). A large fraction of fastidious and anaerobic bacteria (22.43%) was not detected under culture conditions but only by using PCR. This group of bacteria evade the standard culture conditions used in routine diagnostic laboratories examining urine specimens. The molecular approach used broad-range 16S rDNA PCR, denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, sequencing, and bioinformatic analysis to uncover these 'hidden' pathogens and is recommended in particular when examining leukocyte esterase-positive and culture-negative urinary tract specimens.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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