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J Neurosci Nurs. 1991 Aug;23(4):224-30.

Hope, social support and self-esteem of patients with spinal cord injuries.

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University of Alabama, School of Nursing, Birmingham.


A descriptive study was conducted to determine if a relationship among the variables of hope, social support and self-esteem existed in persons with spinal cord injuries. A demographic data sheet and three instruments were used: Miller Hope Scale (MHS), Personal Resource Questionnaire Part II (PRQ) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Of the 83 inpatients and outpatients who agreed to participate, 77 sets of questionnaires were usable. Ages of subjects ranged from 18-73 (mean 34.8) years and levels of injury ranged from C4-L3. The mean scores on the tools were: MHS-153.51 (40-200 possible range), PRQ-137.42 (25-175 possible range) and RSES-29.59 (10-40 possible range). There was a statistically significant relationship between hope and social support, hope and self-esteem and social support and self-esteem. By multiple regression analysis, the best predictors of hope in the subjects were self-esteem, social support and education.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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