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Plant Cell. 2008 Mar;20(3):768-85. doi: 10.1105/tpc.107.054809. Epub 2008 Mar 11.

General detoxification and stress responses are mediated by oxidized lipids through TGA transcription factors in Arabidopsis.

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Julius-von-Sachs-Institut fuer Biowissenschaften, Pharmazeutische Biologie, Biozentrum, Universitaet Wuerzburg, 97082 Wuerzburg, Germany.


12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and several phytoprostanes are cyclopentenone oxylipins that are formed via the enzymatic jasmonate pathway and a nonenzymatic, free radical-catalyzed pathway, respectively. Both types of cyclopentenone oxylipins induce the expression of genes related to detoxification, stress responses, and secondary metabolism, a profile clearly distinct from that of the cyclopentanone jasmonic acid. Microarray analyses revealed that 60% of the induction by phytoprostanes and 30% of the induction by 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid was dependent on the TGA transcription factors TGA2, TGA5, and TGA6. Moreover, treatment with phytoprostanes and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid inhibited cell division and root growth, a property also shared by jasmonic acid. Besides being potent signals, cyclopentenones and other lipid peroxidation products are reactive electrophiles that can covalently bind to and damage proteins. To this end, we show that at least two of the induced detoxification enzymes efficiently metabolize cyclopentenones in vitro. Accumulation of two of these metabolites was detectable during Pseudomonas infection. The cyclopentenone oxylipin gene induction profile resembles the defense response induced by a variety of lipophilic xenobiotics. Hence, oxidized lipids may activate chemosensory mechanisms of a general broad-spectrum detoxification network involving TGA transcription factors.

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