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Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2008 Mar;45(2):113-20. doi: 10.1597/06-171.1.

Effect of cleft palate repair on the susceptibility to contraction-induced injury of single permeabilized muscle fibers from congenitally-clefted goat palates.

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1
Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Despite cleft palate repair, velopharyngeal competence is not achieved in approximately 15% of patients, often necessitating secondary surgical correction. Velopharyngeal competence postrepair may require the conversion of levator veli palatini muscle fibers from injury-susceptible type 2 fibers to injury-resistant type 1 fibers. As an initial step to determining the validity of this theory, we tested the hypothesis that, in most cases, repair induces the transformation to type 1 fibers, thus diminishing susceptibility to injury.

INTERVENTIONS:

Single permeabilized levator veli palatini muscle fibers were obtained from normal palates and nonrepaired congenitally-clefted palates of young (2 months old) and adult (14 to 15 months old) goats and from repaired palates of adult goats (8 months old). Repair was done at 2 months of age using a modified von Langenbeck technique.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Fiber type was determined by contractile properties and susceptibility to injury was assessed by force deficit, the decrease in maximum force following a lengthening contraction protocol expressed as a percentage of initial force.

RESULTS:

For normal palates and cleft palates of young goats, the majority of the fibers were type 2 with force deficits of approximately 40%. Following repair, 80% of the fibers were type 1 with force deficits of 20% +/- 2%; these deficits were 45% of those for nonrepaired cleft palates of adult goats (p < .0001).

CONCLUSION:

The decrease in the percentage of type 2 fibers and susceptibility to injury may be important for the development of a functional levator veli palatini muscle postrepair.

PMID:
18333646
PMCID:
PMC2754268
DOI:
10.1597/06-171.1
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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