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J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008 Mar 11;51(10):986-90. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2007.10.057.

Drug-eluting stent thrombosis: results from the multicenter Spanish registry ESTROFA (Estudio ESpañol sobre TROmbosis de stents FArmacoactivos).

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  • 1Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, Santander, Spain.



This study sought to assess the incidence, predictors, and outcome of drug-eluting stent(DES) thrombosis in real-world clinical practice.


The DES thromboses in randomized trials could not be comparable to those observed in clinical practice, frequently including off-label indications.


We designed a large-scale, nonindustry-linked multicentered registry, with 20 centers in Spain. The participant centers provided follow-up data for their patients treated with DES, reporting a detailed standardized form in the event of any angiography-documented DES-associated thrombosis occurring.


Of 23,500 patients treated with DES, definite stent thrombosis(ST) developed in 301: 24 acute, 125 subacute, and 152 late. Of the late, 62 occurred >1 year(very late ST). The cumulative incidence was 2% at 3 years. Antiplatelet treatment had been discontinued in 95 cases(31.6%). No differences in incidences were found among stent types. Independent predictors for subacute ST analyzed in a subgroup of 14,120 cases were diabetes, renal failure, acute coronary syndrome, ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, stent length, and left anterior descending artery stenting, and for late ST were ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, stenting in left anterior descending artery, and stent length. Mortality at 1-year follow-up was 16% and ST recurrence 4.6%. Older age, left ventricular ejection fraction <45%, nonrestoration of Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction flow grade 3, and additional stenting were independent predictors for mortality.


The cumulative incidence of ST after DES implantation was 2% at 3 years. No differences were found among stent types. Patient profiles differed between early and late ST. Short-term prognosis is poor, especially when restoration of normal flow fails.

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