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Appl Opt. 1999 Dec 11;38(35):7252-63.

Extreme-ultraviolet phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer: a wave-front metrology tool with subangstrom reference-wave accuracy.

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Center for X-Ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.


The phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometer (PS/PDI) was recently developed and implemented at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to characterize extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) projection optical systems for lithography. Here we quantitatively characterize the accuracy and precision of the PS/PDI. Experimental measurements are compared with theoretical results. Two major classes of errors affect the accuracy of the interferometer: systematic effects arising from measurement geometry and systematic and random errors due to an imperfect reference wave. To characterize these effects, and hence to calibrate the interferometer, a null test is used. This null test also serves as a measure of the accuracy of the interferometer. We show the EUV PS/PDI, as currently implemented, to have a systematic error-limited reference-wave accuracy of 0.0028 waves (lambda/357 or 0.038 nm at lambda = 13.5 nm) within a numerical aperture of 0.082.

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