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Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2008 Jun;28(6):1050-9. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.107.158998. Epub 2008 Mar 6.

Regulation of macrophage functions by PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma, and LXRs in mice and men.

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  • 1UR 545 INSERM, Institut Pasteur de Lille, 1 Rue Calmette BP245, 59019 Lille, France.


Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and (liver X receptors) LXRs are ligand-activated transcription factors that control lipid and glucose metabolism, as well as the inflammatory response. Because the macrophage plays an important role in host defense and immunoinflammatory pathologies, particular attention has been paid to the role of PPARs and LXRs in the control of macrophage gene expression and function. Research over the last few years has revealed important roles for PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma, and LXRs in macrophage inflammation and cholesterol homeostasis with consequences for atherosclerosis development. In this review we will discuss the role of these transcription factors in the control of macrophage activities, with particular attention to species-differences in macrophage function control by PPARs and LXR between rodents and humans.

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