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Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2008 Aug 5;140(2):114-31. doi: 10.1016/j.cis.2007.12.008. Epub 2008 Jan 17.

Adsorption of a few heavy metals on natural and modified kaolinite and montmorillonite: a review.

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Department of Chemistry, Gauhati University, Guwahati 781014, Assam, India.


The feasibility of using two important and common clay minerals, kaolinite and montmorillonite, as adsorbents for removal of toxic heavy metals has been reviewed. A good number of works have been reported where the modifications of these natural clays were done to carry the adsorption of metals from aqueous solutions. The modification was predominantly done by pillaring with various polyoxy cations of Zr4+, Al3+, Si4+, Ti4+, Fe3+, Cr3+or Ga3+, etc. Preparation of pillared clays with quaternary ammonium cations, namely, tetramethylammonium-, tetramethylphosphonium- and trimethyl-phenylammonium-, N'-didodecyl-N, N'-tetramethylethanediammonium, etc, are also common. Moreover, the acid treatment of clays often boosted their adsorption capacities. The adsorption of toxic metals, viz., As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, etc., have been studied predominantly. Montmorillonite and its modified forms have much higher metal adsorption capacity compared to that of kaolinite as well as modified-kaolinite.


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