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PPAR Res. 2008;2008:348610. doi: 10.1155/2008/348610.

Cryptochrome and Period Proteins Are Regulated by the CLOCK/BMAL1 Gene: Crosstalk between the PPARs/RXRalpha-Regulated and CLOCK/BMAL1-Regulated Systems.

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Department of Biochemistry, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495, Japan.


Feeding and the circadian system regulate lipid absorption and metabolism, and the expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism is believed to be directly controlled by the clock system. To investigate the interaction between the lipid metabolism system and the circadian system, we analyzed the effect of a CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer on the transcriptional regulation of PPAR-controlled genes through PPAR response elements (PPREs). Transcription of acyl-CoA oxidase, cellular retinol binding protein II (CRBPII), and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) synthase was altered by CLOCK/BMAL1, and transcriptional activity via PPRE by PPARs/RXRalpha was enhanced by CLOCK/BMAL1 and/or by PPARs ligand/activators. We also found that CLOCK/BMAL1-mediated transcription of period (PER) and cryptochrome (CRY) was modulated by PPARalpha/RXRalpha. These results suggest that there may be crosstalk between the PPARs/RXRalpha-regulated system and the CLOCK/BMAL1-regulated system.

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