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Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008 Apr;27(4):335-40. doi: 10.1097/INF.0b013e318161434d.

Impact of conjugate vaccine on transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among Alaskan children.

Author information

1
From the Office of Workforce and Career Development, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA. sarah.park@doh.hawaii.gov

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The impact of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on transmission of antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important concern for countries considering PCV7 introduction.

METHODS:

Every winter from 2000 to 2004, as PCV7 was routinely introduced, we obtained nasopharyngeal swabs for pneumococcal culture, serotyping, and susceptibility testing from 150 children aged 3-59 months at each of 3 Anchorage, Alaska clinics. We assessed risk factors for pneumococcal carriage, including vaccination status and antimicrobial use.

RESULTS:

Between 2000 and 2004, 2250 nasopharyngeal swabs from 2061 infants and children were collected. The proportion of children receiving > or = 1 PCV7 vaccination increased from 0 to 89%, whereas overall pneumococcal carriage remained stable (38% versus 41%, respectively). Among S. pneumoniae carriers, we observed declines in carriage of PCV7 serotypes (from 54% to 10%, P < 0.01) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole nonsusceptible strains (44% to 16%, P < 0.01), but not in PCN-nonsusceptible strains (36% versus 37%). Among PCN-nonsusceptible types, the proportion of serotype 19A strains increased from 10% to 32% (P = 0.0002). Recent beta-lactam use was stable throughout the period (29% overall), whereas trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole use declined from 6% to 2% (P = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS:

PCV7 vaccination in the first 5 years did not affect overall pneumococcal carriage, but was associated with a shift in serotype distribution from PCV7 types to non-PCV7 types. With persistent pressure of some antimicrobials, reductions in carriage of antimicrobial nonsusceptible PCV7 types may be offset by increases in carriage of nonsusceptible non-PCV7 types.

PMID:
18316986
DOI:
10.1097/INF.0b013e318161434d
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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