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Vet J. 2009 Mar;179(3):422-9. doi: 10.1016/j.tvjl.2007.10.025. Epub 2008 Mar 7.

Expression of TopBP1 in canine mammary neoplasia in relation to histological type, Ki67, ERalpha and p53.

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Division of Pathological Sciences, Institute of Comparative Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.


TopBP1 is aberrantly expressed in human and feline mammary carcinomas, but expression of this BRCA1-related protein has not been investigated in canine mammary carcinomas. In this study, 132 canine mammary tumours (46 benign, 86 carcinomas) were examined immunohistochemically for expression of TopBP1, oestrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha), Ki67 and p53. Positive staining for TopBP1 was evident in all canine mammary lesions, although five samples had <20% positive cells. The number of samples with high levels of staining increased in different categories from benign mixed tumour to adenoma to carcinoma. Most TopBP1 staining was nuclear, but both nuclear and cytoplasmic staining were observed as the degree of malignancy increased, similar to human and feline mammary carcinomas. Benign mixed tumours, however, had more cytoplasmic staining than adenomas. Expression of p53 and the proliferation marker Ki67 increased from benign mixed tumour to adenoma to carcinoma, but the differences between benign and malignant tumours were more distinct than for TopBP1 expression. ERalpha expression decreased from malignant to benign tumours, although over half of the benign mixed tumours were negative. TopBP1 was expressed in canine mammary tumours at higher levels than has been reported previously for cats, although the shift in cellular localisation with malignancy was similar.

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