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J Org Chem. 2008 Mar 21;73(6):2357-66. doi: 10.1021/jo702462t. Epub 2008 Feb 29.

Kilogram-scale synthesis of a second-generation dendrimer based on 1,3,5-triazine using green and industrially compatible methods with a single chromatographic step.

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Department of Chemistry, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.


A kilogram scale, divergent and iterative synthesis of a second generation, triazine dendrimer with 12 protected amines on the periphery using common laboratory equipment is reported. The route benefits from common reaction conditions, inexpensive reagents, and aqueous solvents. From the monomers, the desired product dendrimer--the last uncommitted intermediate that leads to a range of committed, generation three targets--can be obtained in 70% overall yield. Of critical importance in the execution of this divergent synthesis is the differential reactivity of chlorine atoms of trichlorotriazine. The stepwise, nucleophilic aromatic substitution of these atoms with amine nucleophiles is both the basis for the dendrimer growth as well as incorporation of solubilizing piperidine groups. Intermediates are obtained and purified through precipitation and/or extraction protocols with the exception of the final product. Isolation of the target dendrimer requires a single silica gel plug filtration. The purity of this material is assessed at >93%, a level consistent with and/or exceeding other commercially available targets.

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