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Curr Opin Microbiol. 2008 Feb;11(1):21-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2008.01.005. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

Biochemical functions of Yersinia type III effectors.

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National Institute of Biological Sciences, Zhongguancun Life Science Park, Beijing, China.


Yersinia uses a type III secretion system (TTSS) to deliver six effector proteins into host cells. These six proteins harbor distinct activities that are mimicries of host functions but often have acquired unique biochemical features. The host targets for these effectors appear to be limited to a few key signaling components such as G proteins and kinases, whereas their models of action are diverse and sophisticated. The functions of these effectors are to subvert the host immune defense response, including alterations of the cytoskeleton structure, inhibition of phagocytic clearance, blockage of cytokine production, and induction of apoptosis. These effectors also interfere with communications between the innate and the adaptive immune response, thus aiding the establishment of a systemic infection.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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