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FEBS J. 2008 Mar;275(5):848-66. doi: 10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06250.x.

Protein tyrosine phosphatases: dual-specificity phosphatases in health and disease.

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1
Centro de Investigación Príncipe Felipe, Valencia, Spain. rpulido@cipf.es

Abstract

Dual-specificity phosphatases (DSPs) constitute a subfamily of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) that dephosphorylates phospho-Tyr, phospho-Ser and nonproteinaceous substrates. DSPs are involved in the regulation of both developmental and postnatal essential processes, such as early embryogenesis, placental development and immune responses. Several DSP genes are implicated in familial and sporadic human diseases, including tumor-related, neurological and muscle disorders, and cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. This association ranges from disease-causative mutations to disease-risk-prone single-nucleotide polymorphisms, promoter methylation or gene duplication (most often in cancer). Deconvolution of the role of DSPs in disease is challenging. The enzymes' activities are regulated at many levels and they form part of extensive, intricate networks with other signaling components. Here, we review current knowledge of the role of cysteine-based PTP-domain DSPs in health and disease, and their suitability as putative therapeutic targets for drugs is discussed.

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