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J Food Sci. 2008 Mar;73(2):H19-27. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2007.00625.x.

Total phenolic content and antioxidant properties of eclipse black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) as affected by processing methods.

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  • 1Dept. of Cereal and Food Sciences, North Dakota State Univ., Fargo, ND 58105, USA.


The effects of soaking, boiling, and steaming processes on the phenolic components and antioxidant activity of black beans were investigated. All processed beans exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) lower antioxidant activities than raw beans in total phenolic content (TPC), DPPH free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). Steaming processes resulted in a greater retention of TPC and ORAC values than the boiling processes. Pressure boiling shortened processing time compared to regular boiling, resulted in insignificant differences in TPC, but significantly increased in ORAC as compared to the regular boiling method. Pressure steaming resulted in significant decreases in TPC, DPPH, while significantly increased in ORAC compared to regular steaming. Greater TPC, DPPH, and ORAC values were detected in boiling water than in the soaking and steaming water. Mass balance analysis showed that boiling caused more dry solid loss than steaming. All of these results indicated that processing methods significantly changed contents and activities of antioxidant components of black beans. Steam processing exhibited several advantages in appearance and texture of the cooked product, shortening processing time, and in greater retention of TPC and antioxidant activities. Steam processing may be used to develop high-quality health-promoting black bean products.

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