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New Phytol. 2008;178(3):515-31. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02383.x. Epub 2008 Feb 19.

Zeatin-induced nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana mutants of NO biosynthesis and of two-component signaling genes.

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Universität Hannover, Institut für Zierpflanzenbau und Gehölzforschung, Abt. Molekulare, Ertragsphysiologie, Herrenhäuser Strasse 2, D-30419 Hannover, Germany.


* Here, cytokinin-induced nitric oxide (NO) biosynthesis and cytokinin responses were investigated in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type and mutants defective in NO biosynthesis or cytokinin signaling components. * NO release from seedlings was quantified by a fluorometric method and, by microscopy, observed NO biosynthesis as fluorescence increase of DAR-4M AM (diaminorhodamine 4M acetoxymethyl ester) in different tissues. * Atnoa1 seedlings were indistinguishable in NO tissue distribution pattern and morphological responses, induced by zeatin, from wild-type seedlings. Wild-type and nia1,2 seedlings, lacking nitrate reductase (NR), responded to zeatin with an increase within 3 min in NO biosynthesis so that NR does not seem relevant for rapid NO induction, which was mediated by an unknown 2-(2-aminoethyl)2-thiopseudourea (AET)-sensitive enzyme and was quenched by 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-1-oxy-3-oxide (PTIO). Long-term morphological responses to zeatin were severely altered and NO biosynthesis was increased in nia1,2 seedlings. As cytokinin signaling mutants we used the single-receptor knockout cre1/ahk4, three double-receptor knockouts (ahk2,3, ahk2,4, ahk3,4) and triple-knockout ahp1,2,3 plants. All cytokinin-signaling mutants showed aberrant tissue patterns of NO accumulation in response to zeatin and altered morphological responses to zeatin. * Because aberrant NO biosynthesis correlated with aberrant morphological responses to zeatin the hypothesis was put forward that NO is an intermediate in cytokinin signaling.

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