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Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2008 Apr;17(2):285-307, viii. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2007.11.012.

Neurobiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2350 - 2201A 90035-903, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.


This article addresses the current understanding of the neurobiological bases of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on empiric research findings that connect genetic and environmental factors to structural and functional brain abnormalities, ultimately leading to a set of age-dependent behavioral manifestations. Section one presents evidence for genetic risk factors for ADHD and discusses the role of potential environmental factors in the etiology of the disorder. Section two focuses on brain imaging studies and how they have helped generate different hypotheses regarding the pathophysiology of ADHD. Finally, the article addresses the longitudinal course of symptoms in ADHD from infancy to adulthood in an attempt to place biological findings for this complex brain disorder in the context of maturation and development.

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