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Eur J Cell Biol. 2008 Sep;87(8-9):459-68. doi: 10.1016/j.ejcb.2008.01.001. Epub 2008 Feb 21.

Actin cytoskeletal organisation in osteoclasts: a model to decipher transmigration and matrix degradation.

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Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle de Lyon, Université de Lyon, Allée d'Italie, F-69364 Lyon, France.


Osteoclasts are large monocyte-derived multinucleated cells whose function is to resorb bone, i.e. a mineralised extracellular matrix. They exhibit two different actin cytoskeleton organisations according to their substratum. On non-mineralised substrates they form canonical podosomes, but on mineralised extracellular matrices they form a sealing zone. Podosomes consist of two functionally different actin subdomains: a podosome core, probably made of branched actin organised through a CD44 transmembrane receptor, and an actin cloud of actin cables organised around alphavbeta3 integrin. During osteoclast differentiation, podosome patterning is highly dynamic, and we propose that it ends up in a sealing zone in mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts after a complete reorganisation of the two subdomains. In addition to matrix degradation, osteoclasts share with tumour cells the ability to transmigrate through cell layers and-for that purpose-can arrange their cytoskeleton in long protrusions reminiscent of invadopodia. In this review, we discuss the relationships between podosomes and sealing zone, comparing their structures, their molecular composition and their abilities to degrade extracellular matrices. The dynamic actin remodelling in osteoclasts appears then as a major factor to understand their unusual abilities reminiscent of metastatic tumour cells.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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