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Am J Hypertens. 2008 Apr;21(4):443-50. doi: 10.1038/ajh.2008.4. Epub 2008 Feb 21.

Ambulatory blood pressure is a better marker than clinic blood pressure in predicting cardiovascular events in patients with/without type 2 diabetes.

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Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Jichi Medical University School of Medicine, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, Japan.



The prognostic significance of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) has not been established in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).


In order to clarify the impact of ABP on cardiovascular prognosis in patients with or without T2DM, we performed ABP monitoring (ABPM) in 1,268 subjects recruited from nine sites in Japan, who were being evaluated for hypertension. The mean age of the patients was 70.4 +/- 9.9 years, and 301 of them had diabetes. The patients were followed up for 50 +/- 23 months. We investigated the relation between incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and different measures of ABP, including three categories of awake systolic blood pressure (SBP <135, 135-150, and >150 mm Hg), sleep SBP (<120, 120-135, and >135 mm Hg), and dipping trends in nocturnal blood pressure (BP) (dippers, nondippers, and risers). Cox regression models were used in order to control for classic risk factors.


Higher awake and sleep SBPs predicted higher incidence of CVD in patients with and without diabetes. In multivariable analyses, elevated SBPs while awake and asleep predicted increased risk of CVD more accurately than clinic BP did, in both groups of patients. The relationships between ABP level and CVD were similar in both groups. In Kaplan-Meier analyses, the incidence of CVD in nondippers was similar to that in dippers, but risers experienced the highest risk of CVD in both groups (P < 0.01). The riser pattern was associated with a approximately 150% increase in risk of CVD, in both groups.


These findings suggest that ABPM is a better predictor of cardiovascular risk than clinic BP, and that this holds true for patients with or without T2DM.

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