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Mol Diagn Ther. 2008;12(1):25-43.

NeuroAIDS: characteristics and diagnosis of the neurological complications of AIDS.

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Department of Neurology, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center-Shreveport, Shreveport, Louisiana, USA.


The neurological complications of AIDS (NeuroAIDS) include neurocognitive impairment and HIV-associated dementia (HAD; also known as AIDS dementia and HIV encephalopathy). HAD is the most significant and devastating central nervous system (CNS) complications associated with HIV infection. Despite recent advances in our knowledge of the clinical features, pathogenesis, and neurobiological aspects of HAD, it remains a formidable scientific and therapeutic challenge. An understanding of the mechanisms of HIV neuroinvasion, CNS proliferation, and HAD pathogenesis provide a basis for the interpretation of the diagnostic features of HAD and its milder form, HIV-associated minor cognitive/motor disorder (MCMD). Current diagnostic strategies are associated with significant limitations, but it is hoped that the use of biomarkers may assist researchers and clinicians in predicting the onset of the disease process and in evaluating the effects of new therapies.

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