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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008 Aug;84(2):248-53. doi: 10.1038/clpt.2008.1. Epub 2008 Feb 20.

Effects of pregnancy on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein activities as measured by disposition of midazolam and digoxin: a University of Washington specialized center of research study.

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Department of Pharmacy, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.


The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effects of pregnancy on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activities, as measured by disposition of midazolam and digoxin, respectively. Thirteen women received digoxin (0.25 mg p.o.) and midazolam (2 mg p.o.) in random order, separated by 1-2 weeks at 28-32 weeks gestation, and the same order was repeated at 6-10 weeks postpartum. Plasma and urine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Midazolam CL/F(unbound) (593 +/- 237 l/min vs. 345 +/- 103 l/min; P = 0.007), digoxin CL(Renal, unbound) (272 +/- 45 ml/min vs. 183 +/- 37 ml/min; P < 0.002) and digoxin CL(secretion,) (unbound) (109 +/- 34 ml/min vs. 58 +/- 22 ml/min; P < 0.002) were higher during pregnancy than postpartum. These data are consistent with increased hepatic and/or intestinal CYP3A and renal P-gp activities during pregnancy.

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