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Int J Methods Psychiatr Res. 2008;17(1):35-44. doi: 10.1002/mpr.237.

Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale - parent form.

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Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital and College of Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan.


This study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of parent ratings on the Chinese version of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV scale (SNAP-IV) in a school-based sample of 3534 students in grades 1 to 8 from two cities and two suburbs in Taiwan and 189 children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (aged 6 to 15) consecutively recruited from a medical center in Taipei. Parents completed the Chinese versions of the SNAP-IV, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, and Child Behavior Checklist. The Chinese SNAP-IV demonstrated similar three factor structure (Inattention, Hyperactivity/Impulsivity, and Oppositional) as its English version, and satisfactory test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation = 0.59 approximately 0.72), internal consistency (alpha = 0.88 approximately 0.90), concurrent validity (Pearson correlations = 0.56 approximately 0.72), and discriminant validity. Boys scored higher than girls across the eight school grade levels. The SNAP-IV clearly distinguished children with ADHD from school-based participants. Comorbidity with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder predicted higher SNAP-IV scores among children with ADHD. Our findings suggest that the Chinese SNAP-IV is a reliable and valid instrument for rating ADHD-related symptoms in both clinical and community settings in Taiwan.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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