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Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2008 Feb;15(1):89-94. doi: 10.1097/HJR.0b013e3282f4b212.

Depression: a predictor of smoking relapse in a 6-month follow-up after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome.

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Department of Psychology, University of São Paulo Medical School, Brazil.



The objective of the study was to investigate whether depression is a predictor of postdischarge smoking relapse among patients hospitalized for myocardial infarction (MI) or unstable angina (UA), in a smoke-free hospital.


Current smokers with MI or UA were interviewed while hospitalized; patients classified with major depression (MD) or no humor disorder were reinterviewed 6 months post discharge to ascertain smoking status. Potential predictors of relapse (depression; stress; anxiety; heart disease risk perception; coffee and alcohol consumption; sociodemographic, clinical, and smoking habit characteristics) were compared between those with MD (n=268) and no humor disorder (n=135).


Relapsers (40.4%) were more frequently and more severely depressed, had higher anxiety and lower self-efficacy scale scores, diagnosis of UA, shorter hospitalizations, started smoking younger, made fewer attempts to quit, had a consort less often, and were more frequently at the 'precontemplation' stage of change. Multivariate analysis showed relapse-positive predictors to be MD [odds ratio (OR): 2.549; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.519-4.275] (P<0.001); 'precontemplation' stage of change (OR: 7.798; 95% CI: 2.442-24.898) (P<0.001); previous coronary bypass graft surgery (OR: 4.062; 95% CI: 1.356-12.169) (P=0.012); and previous anxiolytic use (OR: 2.365; 95% CI: 1.095-5.107) (P=0.028). Negative predictors were diagnosis of MI (OR: 0.575; 95% CI: 0.361-0.916) (P=0.019); duration of hospitalization (OR: 0.935; 95% CI: 0.898-0.973) (P=0.001); smoking onset age (OR: 0.952; 95% CI: 0.910-0.994) (P=0.028); number of attempts to quit smoking (OR: 0.808; 95% CI: 0.678-0.964) (P=0.018); and 'action' stage of change (OR: 0.065; 95% CI: 0.008-0.532) (P=0.010).


Depression, no motivation, shorter hospitalization, and severity of illness contributed to postdischarge resumption of smoking by patients with acute coronary syndrome, who underwent hospital-initiated smoking cessation.

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